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Chemical principles

Author: Steven S Zumdahl
Publisher: Boston : Houghton Mifflin, [2009] ©2009
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 6th edView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Steven S Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780618946907 061894690X
OCLC Number: 1130022119
Notes: Includes index.
Description: xxiv, 1,073, 102 pages : color illustrations ; 26 cm
Contents: Note: Each chapter concludes with Exercises.1. Chemists and Chemistry1.1 Thinking Like a Chemist1.2 A Real-World Chemistry Problem1.3 The Scientific Method1.4 Industrial Chemistry1.5 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Real-World Chemistry2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions2.1 The Early History of Chemistry2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws2.3 Dalton's Atomic Theory2.4 Cannizzaro's Interpretation2.5 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom2.6 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction2.7 Molecules and Ions2.8 An Introduction to the Periodic Table2.9 Naming Simple Compounds3. Stoichiometry3.1 Atomic Masses3.2 The Mole3.3 Molar Mass3.4 Percent Composition of Compounds3.5 Determining the Formula of a Compound3.6 Chemical Equations3.7 Balancing Chemical Equations3.8 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products3.9 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant4. Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry4.1 Water, the Common Solvent4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes4.3 The Composition of Solutions4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions4.5 Precipitation Reactions4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution4.7 Selective Precipitation4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions4.9 Acid-Base Reactions4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations5. Gases5.1 Early Experiments5.2 The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro5.3 The Ideal Gas Law5.4 Gas Stoichiometry5.5 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases5.7 Effusion and Diffusion5.8 Collisions of Gas Particles with the Container Walls5.9 Intermolecular Collisions5.10 Real Gases5.11 Characteristics of Several Real Gases5.12 Chemistry in the Atmosphere6. Chemical Equilibrium6.1 The Equilibrium Condition6.2 The Equilibrium Constant6.3 Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures6.4 The Concept of Activity6.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria6.6 Applications of the Equilibrium Constant6.7 Solving Equilibrium Problems6.8 Le Chatelier's Principle6.9 Equilibria Involving Real Gases7. Acids and Bases7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases7.2 Acid Strength7.3 The pH Scale7.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions7.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions7.6 Bases7.7 Polyprotic Acids7.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts7.9 Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration7.10 Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration7.11 Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary8. Applications of Aqueous Equilibria8.1 Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion8.2 Buffered Solutions8.3 Exact Treatment of Buffered Solutions8.4 Buffer Capacity8.5 Titrations and pH Curves8.6 Acid-Base Indicators8.7 Titration of Polyprotic Acids8.8 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product8.9 Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis8.10 Complex Ion Equilibria9. Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry9.1 The Nature of Energy9.2 Enthalpy9.3 Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases9.4 Calorimetry9.5 Hess's Law9.6 Standard Enthalpies of Formation9.7 Present Sources of Energy9.8 New Energy Sources10. Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy10.1 Spontaneous Processes and Entropy10.2 The Isothermal Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas10.3 The Definition of Entropy10.4 Entropy and Physical Changes10.5 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics10.6 The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity10.7 Free Energy10.8 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions10.9 Free Energy and Chemical Reactions10.10 The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure10.11 Free Energy and Equilibrium10.12 Free Energy and Work10.13 Reversible and Irreversible Processes: A Summary10.14 Adiabatic Processes11. Electrochemistry11.1 Galvanic Cells11.2 Standard Reduction Potentials11.3 Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy11.4 Dependence of the Cell Potential on Concentration11.5 Batteries11.6 Corrosion11.7 Electrolysis11.8 Commercial Electrolytic Processes12. Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory12.1 Electromagnetic Radiation12.2 The Nature of Matter12.3 The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen12.4 The Bohr Model12.5 The Quantum Mechanical Description of the Atom12.6 The Particle in a Box12.7 The Wave Equation for the Hydrogen Atom12.8 The Physical Meaning of a Wave Function12.9 The Characteristics of Hydrogen Orbitals12.10 Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle12.11 Polyelectronic Atoms12.12 The History of the Periodic Table12.13 The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table12.14 Further Development of the Polyelectronic Model12.15 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties12.16 The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals13. Bonding: General Concepts13.1 Types of Chemical Bonds13.2 Electronegativity13.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments13.4 Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes13.5 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds13.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds13.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model13.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions13.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model13.10 Lewis Structure13.11 Resonance13.12 Exceptions to the Octet Rule13.13 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model14. Covalent Bonding: Orbitals14.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model14.2 The Molecular Orbital Model14.3 Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules14.4 Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules14.5 Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models14.6 Orbitals: Human Inventions14.7 Molecular Spectroscopy: An Introduction14.8 Electronic Spectroscopy14.9 Vibrational Spectroscopy14.10 Rotational Spectroscopy14.11 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy15. Chemical Kinetics15.1 Reaction Rates15.2 Rate Laws: An Introduction15.3 Determining the Form of the Rate Law15.4 The Integrated Rate Law15.5 Rate Laws: A Summary15.6 Reaction Mechanisms15.7 The Steady-State Approximation15.8 A Model for Chemical Kinetics15.9 Catalysis16. Liquids and Solids16.1 Intermolecular Forces16.2 The Liquid State16.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids16.4 Structure and Bonding in Metals16.5 Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids16.6 Molecular Solids16.7 Ionic Solids16.8 Structures of Actual Ionic Solids16.9 Lattice Defects16.10 Vapor Pressure and Changes of State16.11 Phase Diagrams16.12 Nanotechnology17. Properties of Solutions17.1 Solution Composition17.2 The Thermodynamics of Solution Formation17.3 Factors Affecting Solubility17.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions17.5 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression17.6 Osmotic Pressure17.7 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions17.8 Colloids18. The Representative Elements18.1 A Survey of the Representative Elements18.2 The Group 1A Elements18.3 The Chemistry of Hydrogen18.4 The Group 2A Elements18.5 The Group 3A Elements18.6 The Group 4A Elements18.7 The Group 5A Elements18.8 The Chemistry of Nitrogen18.9 The Chemistry of Phosphorus18.10 The Group 6A Elements18.11 The Chemistry of Oxygen18.12 The Chemistry of Sulfur18.13 The Group 7A Elements18.14 The Group 8A Elements19. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry19.1 The Transition Metals: A Survey19.2 The First-Row Transition Metals19.3 Coordination Compounds19.4 Isomerism19.5 Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron Model19.6 The Crystal Field Model19.7 The Molecular Orbital Model19.8 The Biological Importance of Coordination Complexes20. The Nucleus: A Chemist's View20.1 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay20.2 The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay20.3 Nuclear Transformations20.4 Detection and Uses of Radioactivity20.5 Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus20.6 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion20.7 Effects of Radiation21. Organic and Biochemical Molecules21.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons21.2 Alkenes and Alkynes21.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons21.4 Hydrocarbon Derivatives21.5 Polymers21.6 Natural PolymersAppendix 1. Mathematical ProceduresA1.1 Exponential NotationA1.2 LogarithmsA1.3 Graphing FunctionsA1.4 Solving Quadratic EquationsA1.5 Uncertainties in MeasurementsA1.6 Significant FiguresAppendix 2. Units of Measurement and Conversions Among UnitsA2.1 MeasurementsA2.2 Unit ConversionsAppendix 3. Spectral AnalysisAppendix 4. Selected Thermodynamic DataAppendix 5. Equilibrium Constants and Reduction PotentialsGlossaryAnswers to Selected ExercisesPhoto CreditsIndex
Responsibility: Steven S. Zumdahl.
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